Five Easy-To-Miss Signs Of Diabetes

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Diabetes is a serious health condition in which your blood sugar is too high for your body to process. Instead, it stays in your bloodstream and over time can lead to complications such as heart diseasekidney disease and vision loss. Diabetes has become a national health crisis, with nearly 10 percent of adults in the United States affected. Prediabetes, which occurs when blood sugar levels rise but are not yet at diabetic levels, affects one in three adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 88 percent of people with prediabetes don’t know they have it, and nearly 25 percent of people with diabetes are unaware they are affected.

Why does it seem like diabetes creeps up on people? You may not realize you have the disease because many of the symptoms are subtle and non-specific, and with prediabetes, you might not have any symptoms at all. But there are a few things you should look out for, especially if you have existing risk factors such as being overweight, not getting enough exercise, eating unhealthy foods or a having a family history of the disease.

1. Fatigue

To turn food into fuel, your body breaks down what you eat into a type of sugar called glucose, which is used for energy. To help your body use the glucose, your pancreas produces a hormone called insulin. But with diabetes, your body resists the insulin. This means you don’t absorb the glucose and end up with less energy, which may lead to a feeling of exhaustion.

2. Thirst and increased urination

When your body isn’t absorbing the right amount of glucose, the kidneys have to work harder to filter it out. This leads your body to make more urine, which in turn makes you go to the bathroom more often. As you drink to quench your thirst, you have to pee, which can create a vicious circle.

“When sugar levels in the blood get too high, some of the extra sugar spills over into the urine made by the kidneys, and water goes along with it,” says Braden Barnett, MD, an endocrinologist at Keck Medicine of USC and clinical assistant professor of medicine (clinician educator) at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. “This leads to increased urination, and the water and sugar that leave the body in the urine lead to dehydration.”

3. Weight loss and increased hunger

Although diabetes is associated with being overweight, one of the first signs may be weight loss. This is because your body is not getting energy from glucose, so it starts burning muscle and fat. And because you’re not getting enough energy from your food, you may crave more of it.

4. Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet

Having high blood sugar for an extended time can lead to nerve damage, or neuropathy, which may cause tingling, burning or a lack of sensation in your extremities.

“The very small and delicate blood vessels and nerves that serve our hands and feet operate best when blood sugars are normal; they are sensitive to high blood sugar levels, which can lead to tingling and numbness,” Dr. Barnett says.

5. Blurry vision

Diabetes can lead to trouble seeing, as high blood sugar affects fluid levels in the eye, which makes them swell and causes difficulty focusing. Over time, blood vessels in the retina can become damaged, which may lead to permanent eye problems. According to the National Eye Institute, diabetes-related vision loss is a leading cause of blindness among adults.

If you experience any of these diabetes symptoms, see your doctor to assess whether you should have your glucose level checked with a simple blood test. Prediabetes is manageable — and may even be reversible — with lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and exercise. These changes are also used in diabetes management, possibly along with medications to regulate insulin levels.

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Have diabetes? Your doctor should be telling you about heart disease

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One in 10 Americans lives with type 2 diabetes. Among many communities, diabetes is downplayed as “having a little sugar” and, with long family histories with the disease, dismissed as an inevitability.

The disease is far more dangerous than most realize. Diabetes doesn’t merely put patients at risk of shock, limb amputation and obesity. Patients with diabetes are up to four times more likely to die of heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States, than their non-diabetic peers.

Many people who have had diabetes for years unfortunately learn of the risks of heart disease and stroke only after having an attack. We must do more to raise patients’ awareness of the connection between these deadly ailments and empower them to lessen their risks. Right now, two in three people with diabetes don’t realize that heart disease is their most probable cause of death.

If more people knew about the risks, they could take preventative action. Ninety-nine percent of individuals with diabetes report that such knowledge would lead them to seek remedies.

Type 2 diabetes prevents the body from efficiently producing insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. As a result, patients’ blood sugar levels can swing wildly.

Elevated blood sugar levels damage blood vessels over time, stiffening them and degrading the elasticity necessary for efficient circulation. That’s a deadly recipe for heart attacks.

Further, African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians have a 50 to 100 percent higher burden of illness and death from diabetes than white Americans. This higher diabetes rate could help explain why these populations are notably more likely to die of heart disease.

Many people with diabetes aren’t doing enough to prevent heart disease. About half of adults with diabetes do not meet recommended blood sugar, blood pressure, or LDL cholesterol levels. Given the knowledge and tools we have to address these risk factors, the cardiovascular toll of diabetes should be decreasing. Instead it’s on the rise.

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Can Eating Breakfast Lower Your Risk for Type 2 Diabetes?

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Experts say skipping breakfast occasionally can even raise your risk. Here’s some advice on what to eat.

Skipping breakfast can cause blood sugar and insulin levels to fluctuate. Getty Images

It’s commonly said that breakfast is the most important meal of the day, and new research shows why it’s so important to eat healthy in the morning.

German researchers conducted a review of existing studies and concluded that skipping breakfast — even occasionally — is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

The review looked at data from more than 96,000 people, spanning 6 separate studies.

The researchers found that skipping breakfast once a week is associated with a 6 percent higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The numbers rose from there, with skipping breakfast 4 or 5 times per week leading to an increased risk of 55 percent.

The research was published in The Journal of Nutrition.

A nutritionist interviewed by Healthline says the data isn’t particularly surprising, and offered some tips for people who find it difficult to start their day with a hearty meal.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that 90 to 95 percent of the 30 million people in the United States living with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

While type 1 diabetes is less common and generally diagnosed early in life, type 2 diabetes typically develops in people over the age of 45. Risk factors include being overweight and physically inactive, along with genetics.

Doctors typically recommend lifestyle changes to avoid developing type 2 diabetes. And there are strategies for managing the disease for people who’ve already been diagnosed.

How breakfast helps

Given the link between type 2 diabetes, blood sugar, and insulin, it isn’t surprising to dietitians that skipping breakfast could also lead to an increased risk.

“Some small studies suggest that skipping the morning meal can actually lead to more insulin resistance,” said Jenna Freeman Scudder, RD, a dietitian at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center who focuses on helping people with diabetes. “Insulin resistance is a condition that requires more insulin to bring blood sugar into the normal range. And when it’s chronic, there’s a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.”

Freeman Scudder said that omitting breakfast in the morning has also been associated with an increase in blood sugar following both lunch and dinner. This can put undue stress on the body as well as leading to poor dietary choices.

“Not breaking that fast after a night’s sleep can strain your body and its metabolism, and it can also lead to overeating,” she said. “It also makes unhealthy, high-calorie options more appealing.”

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Balanced diet, exercise may not prevent gestational diabetes

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It may be time to reconsider the conventional wisdom for preventing gestational diabetes: limiting weight gain and increasing physical activity.

“Our data suggest that in pregnancy, energy balance — the calories consumed versus the calories burned — may not determine the development of gestational diabetes,” said Leanne Redman, PhD, director of LSU Pennington Biomedical Research Center’s Reproductive Endocrinology and Women’s Health Lab. “We and others now believe that there are different types of gestational diabetes that warrant different approaches to treatment and prevention.”

The new Pennington Biomedical study is the latest evidence that the “first-line” strategy for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus isn’t working. Over the past five years, more than 5,000 pregnant women took part in clinical trials that focused on limiting weight gain in order to prevent gestational diabetes.

The result? The moms-to-be improved their diet quality, ate less, and increased their physical activity. They also developed gestational diabetes at about the same rates as the women who didn’t change their diet or activity levels.

“Preventing gestational diabetes is not as simple as reducing weight gain,” said Jasper Most, PhD, co-lead author of the study. “It may require more individualized approaches based on each person’s risk factors.”

Some women may develop gestational diabetes because their pancreas doesn’t adapt adequately to producing additional insulin to match the increased demand of pregnancy, Dr. Most said. Others may develop gestational diabetes because their muscles and livers become more insulin resistant.

Most and Nicholas Broskey, PhD, are co-lead authors of Pennington Biomedical’s new study published in Cell Metabolism. Both are postdoctoral researchers in the Reproductive Endocrinology and Women’s Health Lab.

The five-year study looked at 62 pregnant women with obesity. Nine developed gestational diabetes.

Researchers found that:

  • The primary risk factors for gestational diabetes, such as excess fat and insulin resistance, were evident early in pregnancy.
  • Women that developed gestational diabetes tended to be heavier. They weighed 10 pounds to 35 pounds more. They also had more body fat, from 7 pounds to 25 pounds, and significantly more fat around their waists.
  • The women also had more relatives with diabetes, significantly higher fasting blood sugar levels and a greater prevalence of prediabetes. Redman said the study’s findings do not mean that pregnant women should abandon their efforts to eat a more healthy diet and be physically active.

“But the results do underscore the need to better understand the way that gestational diabetes develops in women with obesity,” Dr. Redman said.

New research is needed into other factors that lead to insulin resistance in pregnancy, Dr. Redman said. In their next study, the scientists hope to better classify the different types of gestational diabetes and to study energy balance in addition to insulin secretion.

Gestational diabetes leads to health issues for the mother and child, issues which can extend well beyond pregnancy. Among other things, around 50 percent of the women with gestational diabetes go on to develop type 2 diabetes, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control. Babies exposed to gestational diabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and have a higher risk of being overweight or developing obesity.

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The 14 Best Diets to Prevent and Manage Diabetes

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Diet or diabetes: You decide.

An estimated 30 million people in the U.S. — or nearly 1 in 10 — have diabetes. Diet is a crucial tool for managing the disease, and weight loss can help people who are overweight prevent Type 2 diabetes. Prevention is particularly important when you consider that diabetes brings complications such as high blood pressure and cholesterol, plus increased risk for heart attack and stroke, kidney disease and blindness. Consider one of the U.S. News 2019 Best Diabetes Diets, as evaluated by nutrition experts:

No. 1 Mediterranean Diet

Fruits, veggies, whole grains. Fish and seafood. Oh yeah, and wine. The Mediterranean diet is a healthy all-around choice — and a clear winner when it comes to diabetes management and prevention. One study, for example, found that about 30 percent of heart attacks, strokes and deaths from heart disease could be prevented by adopting the approach. Another study suggests the Mediterranean diet can help prevent diabetes, since the short-chain fatty acids the diet promotes are linked to a decreased risk of the disease. As one expert said, “Overall, this is the best diet for long-term health and disease prevention.”

No. 2 DASH Diet

The DASH diet — Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension — was designed to curb high blood pressure, but chances are, it can help prevent and manage diabetes, too. It’s generally viewed as an ideal eating pattern for both, and it echoes dietary advice touted by the American Diabetes Association. One large 2017 study even linked diets that closely mirror DASH and other healthy eating patterns with an 18 percent reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes. Better yet, “Because it uses regular food and does not depend on supplements or smoothies, it is relatively easy to incorporate into a dietary plan and it provides satiety,” one U.S. News panelist said.

No. 3 The Flexitarian Diet

The Flexitarian Diet marries flexibility with a vegetarian eating plan — eat like a vegetarian most of the time, but when the urge for a double cheeseburger hits, go for it. Cutting back on meat will likely help you lose weight, which means you stand a better chance of staving off diabetes. Plus, vegetarianism is linked to a lower diabetes risk, according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

No. 4 Mayo Clinic Diet

The Mayo Clinic Diet aims to recalibrate eating habits and promote weight loss. It emphasizes the right foods, discourages the wrong ones and mandates physical activity — all good standards for diabetes prevention. The guidelines mirror those of the American Diabetes Association, and our expert panelists said the plan is better than most other approaches for those worried about diabetes.

No. 5 Volumetrics

Filling up on fibrous, bulky foods (think raw carrots) over easy-to-overeat foods (like Cheetos) is tied to weight loss — and, quite likely, diabetes prevention and management, experts agreed. Research suggests such low-density diets help prevent insulin resistance — a frequent precursor to Type 2 diabetes. The Volumetrics diet is flexible, too. “From a behavioral standpoint, it is one of the most reasonable plans to follow over the long term because it is not overly restrictive and allows people to make ‘better’ choices rather than trying to follow strict guidelines,” one U.S. News panelist said.

No. 6 Jenny Craig

Jenny Craig offers a lower-carb program for people with Type 2 diabetes, which is included in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s national registry of recognized diabetes prevention programs, meaning it has agreed to use an evidence-based curriculum that meets the CDC’s standards. U.S. News panelists suspect the Jenny Craig for Type 2 program can work for diabetes care and applaud its support component, but caution that the cost and packaged foods approach aren’t ideal long term. “The lack of preparation (doesn’t teach) people to eat a healthy diet for the rest of their lives,” one expert said.

No. 7 Ornish Diet

Experts applauded the Ornish Diet as a way to prevent or control diabetes, giving it an impressive rating in this category. The plan’s basic principles of emphasizing whole grains and produce and shunning saturated fat and cholesterol are right in line with American Diabetes Association guidelines. And in one study, Ornish dieters decreased their A1C levels by 0.4 percentage points after a year, which was considered meaningful. “I appreciate that this diet takes a more holistic approach to health, including supporting relationships with others and stress reduction,” one U.S. News panelist said.

No. 8 Vegan Diet

Going vegan will likely help you lose weight and fend off chronic diseases like diabetes. Research suggests the approach can lower A1C levels, and a small pilot study published in the journal Nutrition & Diabetes in 2015 suggests it can help ease diabetes-related nerve pain. In late 2016, even the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics released a position statement declaring vegetarian diets — including vegan ones — to be healthy, nutritionally adequate and potentially able to prevent and treat diseases, including Type 2 diabetes.

No. 9 WW (Weight Watchers)

Want to eat your cake and be able to prevent or manage diabetes, too? WW (Weight Watchers) — which offers specific plans for people with diabetes and prediabetes — allows dieters to strategically indulge using a point system. One yearlong randomized controlled trial of 563 American adults with Type 2 diabetes found that nearly twice as many people who followed WW (Weight Watchers) and received counseling from a certified diabetes educator met their A1C level treatment target in comparison to those who received standard diabetes nutrition counseling and education. WW (Weight Watchers) participants were also more than twice as likely to reduce their diabetes medications. The program also led to greater weight loss and more reduced waistlines.

No. 10 The Engine 2 Diet

Experts were impressed with The Engine 2 Diet, a low-fat, vegan plan designed to prevent and perhaps reverse the diseases caused by the so-called standard American diet, including diabetes. It will almost certainly help you lose weight, which can stave off Type 2 diabetes. Plus, one study found that those on a similar diet were able to ease up on their diabetes medications and lower their A1C hemoglobin levels. But, as with any restrictive plan, careful planning to consume the right amount of various nutrients is key. “Following this diet alone will not reverse diabetes; you’d still have to pay attention to carbohydrate intake,” one reviewer said.

No. 11 MIND Diet

The MIND diet — which blends two all-star plans, the DASH and Mediterranean diets — is designed to prevent Alzheimer’s disease with brain-healthy foods such as leafy green vegetables, berries, nuts, beans and whole grains. While research focuses on brain health, the plan’s parent diets may have diabetes-preventive effects. Just make sure you get moving, too. “Exercise is one of the most important aspects of preventing diabetes” and other chronic diseases, one expert says, “so it’s unfortunate that an exercise recommendation is not included with this diet plan.”

No. 12 Nutritarian Diet

The Nutritarian diet‘s focus on plant foods and limiting of animal proteins is in line with diabetes prevention and management protocols. Research, too, links diets high in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts with a lower risk of Type 2 diabetes, while diets high in animal protein and red meat protein have been linked with higher diabetes prevalence in women. “The Nutritarian diet seems radical,” one expert said, “but it’s really just trying to pack as many of the healthiest foods as possible and minimize those that have been associated with disease.”

No. 13 The Fertility Diet

If you make these changes to your diet, weight and activity, you can increase ovulation and get pregnant faster — or so the claim goes. The Fertility Diet impressed experts, receiving moderate-to-high scores across the board. It performed particularly well in the diabetes, easiness-to-follow, nutrition and safety categories. Still, if getting pregnant is your aim, while it’s considered a sensible diet, experts say there still isn’t sufficient data to support the premise that it will help with fertility.

No. 14 Vegetarian Diet

Going vegetarian can help shed pounds and fend off chronic diseases, including diabetes. A meat-free eating plan will likely help you lose weight and keep it off, which can stave off Type 2 diabetes. Research links vegetarianism with a lower diabetes risk, and the American Diabetes Association and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics agree it’s a healthful option.

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Type 2 Diabetes: The Best Spice to Add to Your Diet to Help Lower Blood Sugar

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TYPE 2 diabetes can be controlled by taking medication, but it’s also necessary for people with the condition to follow a healthy lifestyle and watch what they eat. Certain foods contain properties which can help control blood sugar, with one spice in particular recommended to help.

Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the level of sugar in the blood is too high.

This happens when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly.

Insulin is necessary to control the level of sugar in the blood, so if it can’t do its job properly sugar levels will be too high.

Medication can be taken to manage type 2 diabetes, but it’s also essential for diabetic people to follow a healthy lifestyle and eat a balanced diet that is low in saturated fat, salt and sugar.

Certain foods can also help lower blood sugar levels and may be recommended to be included in a diabetic person’s diet.

According to, cinnamon is one spice which is increasingly being linked to improvements of conditions like diabetes.

This is because research has suggested cinnamon can help improve blood glucose levels and increase insulin sensitivity.

One clinical study in 2003 showed cinnamon bark improves both blood glucose and cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes, and may also reduce risk factors associated with both diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

A daily intake of one, three of six grammes of cinnamon bark was shown to reduce serum glucose, triglyceride and bad cholesterol after 40 days among 60 middle-aged diabetics.

Another earlier study in 2000 found consuming one gramme of cinnamon per day can increase insulin sensitivity and help manage or even reverse type 2 diabetes.

A later study in 2007 revealed eating six grammes of cinnamon slowed stomach emptying and significantly reduced hyperglycaemia after meals.

“As a result of the scientific evidence available, many health experts claim that cinnamon contains properties that are beneficial for blood sugar regulation and treatment of type 2 diabetes,” said

“However, bear in mind that like many natural compounds cinnamon is yet to be medically approved for prevention or treatment of any disease.”

Cinnamon is sold in many forms, including cinnamon sticks, powder, tea, oil and tablet supplements, which can be found in most health shops and larger supermarkets. advises consulting with a doctor first if you plan to take cinnamon supplements or make dietary changes.

Other studies have also shown cinnamon to have an anti-clotting effect on the blood, relieve pain in arthritis sufferers, boost the body’s immune system and stop medication-resistant yeast infections.

Other health benefits of cinnamon include helping relieve indigestion and reducing the proliferation of leukaemia and lymphoma cancer cells.

The majority of these health benefits are associated with Ceylon cinnamon as opposed to cassia bark cinnamon, which is the species involved in most diabetes research.

Cinnamon is also a great source of vital nutrients including calcium, fibre, manganese and iron.

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Two type 2 diabetes drugs linked to higher risk of heart disease

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Two drugs commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 diabetes carry a high risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure or amputation, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study.

“People should know if the medications they’re taking to treat their could lead to serious cardiovascular harm,” said lead author Dr. Matthew O’Brien, assistant professor of general internal medicine and geriatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a Northwestern Medicine physician.  “This calls for a in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.”

The study will be published Dec. 21 in JAMA Network Open.

The two drugs—sulfonylureas and —are commonly prescribed to patients after they have taken metformin, a widely accepted initial Type 2 diabetes treatment, but need a second-line medication because metformin alone didn’t work or wasn’t tolerated.

This is the first study to compare how each of the six major second-line drugs impact cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 diabetes patients taking a second diabetes medication.

Basal is engineered to release slowly over the course of the day, compared to the other type of insulin (prandial insulin), which is faster acting and intended to be taken before meals.

More than half of patients nationwide (60 percent) who need a second-line drug are prescribed one of these two drugs, the study found. Yet, patients who take one of these two drugs are more likely—36 percent more for sulfonylureas and twice as likely for basal insulin—to experience cardiovascular harm than those taking a newer class of diabetes drugs known as DPP-4 inhibitors, the authors report.

“According to our findings, we only have to prescribe basal insulin to 37 people over two years to observe one cardiovascular event, such as a , stroke, or amputation,” O’Brien said. “For sulfonylureas, that number was a bit higher—103 people. But when you apply these numbers to 30 million Americans with diabetes, this has staggering implications for how we may be harming many patients.”

Physicians should consider prescribing newer classes of antidiabetic medications, such as GLP-1 agonists (e.g. liraglutide), SGLT-2 inhibitors (e.g. empagliflozin)or DPP-4 inhibitors (e.g. sitagliptin), more routinely after metformin, rather than sulfonylureas or basal insulin, the study authors suggest.

These drugs, however, are more expensive than the sulfonylureas, which is the main reason they are not as commonly prescribed, O’Brien said.

“This should force providers to think about cardiovascular effects of these drugs early in the course of diabetes treatment, and shift prescribing patterns to newer drugs that have more favorable cardiovascular profiles,” O’Brien said.

This was an observational study using data from 132,737 patients with Type 2 diabetes who were starting second-line treatment. The scientists were, therefore, able to use real-world evidence that complements findings from previous randomized trials which studied only one active compared to placebo.

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Penny Marshall passed away at 75 due to complications from diabetes

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Penny Marshall, star of “Laverne & Shirley” and director of “A League of Their Own,” died Monday due to complications from diabetes, ABC News has confirmed. She was 75.

A rep for the family says “Our family is heartbroken over the passing.”

“Penny was a tomboy who loved sports, doing puzzles of any kind, drinking milk and Pepsi together and being with her family,” the statement continued.

Marshall was certainly a game-changer behind and in front of the camera, as the statement alludes to.

PHOTO: Penny Marshall appears in a scene from Laverne & Shirley.
ABC via Getty Images
Penny Marshall appears in a scene from “Laverne & Shirley.”

“As an actress, her work on ‘Laverne & Shirley'” broke ground featuring blue-collar women entertaining America in prime time,” the family’s statement reads. “She was a comedic natural with a photographic memory and an instinct for slapstick.”

After spending most of the 1960’s and 1970’s starring and being featured in TV shows like “The Odd Couple” and “Happy Days,” she transitioned to directing and immediately hit the ground running.

After directing a few episodes of “Laverne & Shirley,” Marshall directed her first major film, “Jumpin’ Jack Flash,” starring Oscar-winner Whoopi Goldberg. Two years later, she directed another future Oscar-winner, Tom Hanks, in “Big.” That film grossed more than $150 million worldwide, making her the first female director to eclipse the coveted $100 million mark.

Marshall told Reuters in 2012 that her key to success behind the camera was she would try anything and that she wasn’t afraid to ask for help.

PHOTO: Penny Marshall attends an event on April 14, 2012, in New York City.
Jim Spellman/WireImage via Getty Images
Penny Marshall attends an event on April 14, 2012, in New York City.

“I talked to my crew and said, ‘Just tell me the truth.’ I turned to the crews and asked them for their help,” she said when talking about the now 1988 classic film, starring Hanks as a boy who wished to be a man and was surprised when that dream actually became a reality.

But she wasn’t done after “Big,” next directing Robert De Niro and Robin Williams in “Awakenings,” which earned three Oscar nominations, including for Best Picture, making her the second female to be able to make that claim.

Her 1992 hit, “A League of Their Own,” was an inspiring true tale of baseball in World War II America, with women taking up bats and gloves and filling in for the men fighting in the war overseas. That too hit it big at the box office, to the tune of $132 million worldwide.

Marshall made a couple more films in the 1990’s before slowing down her work in the director’s chair and moving more into producing. Her last work as a director was a documentary titled “Rodman,” which is currently in post-production and set to come out next year.

PHOTO: Penny Marshall attends an event on Feb. 15, 2015, in New York City.
D Dipasupil/FilmMagic via Getty Images
Penny Marshall attends an event on Feb. 15, 2015, in New York City.

Along with producing, Marshall wrote a memoir titled “My Mother Was Nuts” in 2012 and was very content enjoying her time reflecting on her life in New York, along with going to basketball and baseball games.

“I decided that I’d done a bunch of movies and I stayed in New York because I wanted to show that New York was safe,” she told Vulture in 2012. “And I love basketball and I love the Yankees, so I had everything.”

Marshall was married twice, first to Michael Henry in the early 1960’s and next to fellow famed director Rob Reiner throughout most of the 1970’s, before they got divorced. She is survived by her daughter Tracy, sister Ronny and and three grandchildren Spencer, Bella and Viva.

“We hope her life continues to inspire others to spend time with family, work hard and make all of their dreams come true,” Tuesday’s statement from the family closed.

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Diabetes linked to speech and cognitive decline in older people: Study

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Type 2 diabetes causes 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year and new research has found it could also be linked to a decline in verbal memory and fluency. Source: Getty

Older people with type 2 diabetes may be more likely to experience cognitive decline as a result of the health condition, new research has shown.

A study published in the Journal of Diabetologica found people over the age of 55 living with type 2 diabetes are likely to experience a decline in verbal memory and fluency over five years. The research noted that previous studies have linked a decrease in brain volume with type 2 diabetes in older members of society and that it can also double the risk of dementia in older people.

Researchers from the University of Tasmania, Monash University and Murdoch Children’s Research Institute aimed to discover whether type 2 diabetes was associated with greater brain atrophy and cognitive decline and whether both were linked to each other. It was the first study that compared cognition and brain atrophy between people living with and without type 2 diabetes in the same study.

For the trial, 705 people aged between 55 and 90 were recruited as part of the Cognition and Diabetes in Older Tasmanians study. This included 348 people with type 2 diabetes and 357 without.

Each participant underwent brain MRIs that measured brain atrophy and neuropsychological measures that analysed cognitive function at three time points over a follow-up period of just under five years.

The results found a significant association between type 2 diabetes and a decline in verbal memory and verbal fluency. And, while people living with diabetes had greater brain atrophy at the beginning of the study, there was no difference in the rate of it between those with and without diabetes.

It was also found that the rate of brain atrophy didn’t directly impact the diabetes-cognition relationship. What researchers did find is for people without type 2 diabetes, verbal fluency slightly increase each year, while it decreased in those with the condition.

“Such accelerated cognitive decline may contribute to executive difficulties in everyday activities and health behaviours – such as medication compliance – which in turn may poorly influence future vascular health and cognitive decline, and possibly an earlier onset of dementia in those with type 2 diabetes,” the study’s authors said in a statement.

The researchers also said that despite their hypotheses and the results of previous studies, the rate of brain atrophy over the five-year study didn’t directly mediate associations between type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline.

“It is possible that the greater accrual of cerebrovascular disease than occurred in our study may be more likely to reveal whether there is such a relationship,” the authors added.

Researchers said both pharmacological and lifestyle interventions would need to commence sooner than old age to prevent brain atrophy in those with type 2 diabetes.

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Tips to help kids with diabetes stay healthy during the holidays

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Tips to help kids with diabetes stay healthy during the holidays

With the holiday season upon us, you’ve got the good—fun holiday parties, the bad—illness, and the ugly—cold weather and fewer hours of sunlight. When you have a child with diabetes, the holidays and winter months in general can be stressful.

I’ve seen for many kids with diabetes, blood sugars rise as the temperature drops. This can largely be blamed on snow, ice, and freezing conditions which discourage outside play or really leaving the house at all. With less exercise, there is a need for more insulin to cover food. Here are some recommendations for children with diabetes to ensure they stay healthy during the holiday season.

Warm up the body

Exercise lowers blood sugar, helps the body use insulin better, keeps body temperature warm, and can even help with mood. There are lots of ways to get active without ever leaving the house. Encourage your kids to try a yoga session or other online class or activity, climb the stairs for 10 minutes, dance to their favorite music, play an active video game—or even clean their room. Try bundling up, too, and go outside to walk shovel, sled, or ice skate with the family! Don’t forget to keep your insulin and meter at room temperature if possible.

Stay healthy

When kids with diabetes get sick, their diabetes can be tricky to control. If your child gets a cold, virus or flu and develop ketones, keep them home and follow sick day rules. Remember, sick kids often need more insulin, so check blood sugar every 2 to 4 hours and correct blood sugar frequently to keep numbers in range. Bodies heal much more quickly when blood sugars are in range. Contact your diabetes provider if ketones persist.

Encourage sleep and good habits

When children and adults get 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night, it helps to ward off pesky colds and more. Be sure to remind them to wash their hands frequently, and have the whole family get a flu shot.

Choose foods wisely

Healthy, balanced nutrition is one of the keys to success. Lots of fun holiday food is hard to count, but you can use your smart phone to look up carb counts for almost anything. Dose insulin correctly for what your child eats. Check blood sugar frequently at parties to make sure that you have balanced the insulin, fun food, and any activity.

Stews and soups with lots of delicious vegetables can help keep warm and are often the healthiest choices. Cooking does not necessarily have to be a chore, either. Getting kids actively involved in the process encourages them to try and hopefully enjoy the finished product. The benefit of cooking in your own kitchen is that you know exactly what goes into the meal. Be sure to make sure kids have veggies and fruit for every meal, if possible—five servings per day is the goal.

Keep spirits up

Encouraging kids and teens to spend time with others can help them ward off the winter blues. This may take some creativity when parents are busy with holiday preparation or if the weather is bad. Think about planning holiday gatherings with your child including some of their friends. This could include a cookie-making sleepover or a meet up at the sledding hill.

With a little planning and lots of blood sugar checks to make sure the numbers stay in range, you can make this this best holiday season yet! Make a big bowl of soup, count the carbs to give insulin, then bundle up and head outdoors for some fresh air! Philly in the winter is lots of fun and diabetes should never stop you!

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